Sunday, December 28, 2008
Even in the organizations that have mature software engineering processes the bus problem persists. This is because all organizations have opportunistic projects (programs) developed by a person or two. These programs, usually developed as unofficial side projects, support informal business processes that provide significant benefit to the end users at little cost. These opportunistic projects are usually developed in a haphazard way, because there is no spare time and they are targeting a very specific audience. Examples of this type of program may be a custom authentication mechanism that is small enough to be developed and maintained by a single person. Such solution may have been intended to be used for just a single software solution, but over time it became an important component of multiple software intensive solutions, or this program became the vehicle for supporting a core official business process.
My colleague responsible for a project that fits the description above has been hit by a “bus”.
Future posts will provide lessons learned from the experience written from an architect’s point of view:
• Dealing with the bus problem
• Anticipating the bus problem
• Preventing the bus problem
Tuesday, December 16, 2008
If you haven’t been taking care of your people through the year consider changing your behavior. By saying “taking care” I don’t mean buying expensive gifts or giving superficial awards. What I mean is enabling your colleagues and employees to support you in the most productive way possible while operating in a professional environment. In life it’s the small things that leave a lasting impression that make people happy.
Let’s say your new team members all have standard company issued laptops with 1 GB or memory. The software tools they use to model architecture and conduct analysis functions result in thrashing and frustrating usability experience. Closing Outlook and IDE makes the modeling software run fast, but that’s not the solution. Your first action is to immediately buy an additional 2 GB of RAM for each person and have it shipped express mail.
Surprise your colleagues by baking cookies from scratch. Not bringing left over batch or buying a package, but purposefully making something for the team. This element of surprise and pleasant goodness clashes with the ordinary daily routine. This is a great way to say thank you in a very small way.
Finally, create and maintain a professional working environment. This may be difficult if the rest of the organization is not ethical or the senior management doesn’t appear to care. It’s important for you, as a leader, to create a sense of belonging. You must consistently address any unprofessional behavior within your team so that your employees can concentrate on delivering the best work rather than dealing with non-work related distractions.
Enabling your team to support you with proper tools in a professional work environment through the year will make you more productive and holiday times less awkward.
Monday, October 27, 2008
The goal of an evaluation is not to determine what is right or what is wrong. The goal of an evaluation is to gain an understanding of how a system is constructed. It’s always healthy to be skeptical – we advocate this strongly as it’s the mantra of the Firebrand Architect® blog – but also give a “benefit of the doubt” and try to understand why a solution was architected one way or another. Remember that the system was designed and implemented under constraints that may no longer be true today.
As a public service announcement, please do your colleagues a favor and methodically document your solutions, and most importantly the thinking process behind your decisions. If someone has to conduct architectural reconstruction on a system you've architected (instead of architectural evaluation based on existing documentation), then you've done this discipline a disfavor. Thank you in advance for being considerate.
Tuesday, October 14, 2008
Some points to note. The design-build model works only when the design documents are extremely detailed - down to the last screw or caulking decision. There are upward of thirty different architectural views for a $5M project. And of course an architect is playing the role of a developer by participating in the day-to-day building activities.
The article offers interesting reaction to this approach from former customers. Since there has been some isolated discussions in the software architecture community of the separation of high level design from implementation it’s worth a look.
Monday, July 21, 2008
Monday, April 28, 2008
The human feelings is a decision making variable that software architects must consider when architecting or more importantly – when strategizing a software system. This is especially important in environments where users have technology based scars.
Situation: Users had (or still have) a bad experience with implementation, deployment, and support of an enterprise grade solution. The system was adopted by a large (7000 people) organization through a mandate – people use it on a daily basis because they are forced. This brute force approach has done a tremendous damage to users’ trust and any new IT investment will be severely challenged.
1. Recognize the pain your future users are feeling right now. Study the situation and learn their existing environment. Understand the challenges of that system – you may face them as well.
2. Clearly understand the business problem you will solve with a software solution. You must, absolutely must, get different perspectives on the problem from a full range of stakeholders – from executive owners to the solution end users. You must be convinced that this solution will solve a business problem.
3. Go an extra mile when documenting the quality attributes of the system to demonstrate through scenarios how your system will not have the frustrating elements of the existing system that scarred the users’ experience. Consider paying an extended attention to the usability quality attributes.
4. Architect your solution so that initial implementation steps can demonstrate progress early. Create a special view of the architecture (an abstract component connector view will work well) targeting your non-technical user base.
5. When possible consider using software you can configure (e.g. COTS packages) to show progress early and often.
6. Conduct demos to the right audiences: the user base influencers. Demonstrate through actions how your approach to architecting and implementing is different than the experience your users had. Especially pay attention to the pain points your users have suffered with another solution. Ask for feedback. No. Demand feedback.
7. Remember that even if you get the architecture “right” it may be implemented wrong. On project you must stay fully engaged in the implementation and monitor conformance with the architecture as if your reputation was on the line. Actually, your reputation is on the line.
In this type of a situation it may be appropriate for an architect to pay a lot of attention to the user touchable interfaces (i.e. UI) before immersing one’s attention on creating a solid skeleton of a system that captures conceptual integrity of the system.
Do you have an experience to share where human perception played a role in your architecture related thinking? Leave a comment.
Thursday, April 24, 2008
In 1996 Professors David Garlan and Mary Shaw of the Carnegie Mellon University published an influential book: “Software Architecture – Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline”. In chapter 1 the authors discuss a model for the evolution of an engineering discipline. The diagram can be found here.
Before discussing the diagram let’s establish a few key concepts. With respect to maturity of engineering disciplines based on pure sciences (e.g. chemical engineering) the software engineering discipline and to a greater extent software architecture discipline is generally considered to be very immature. But why? The authors state that “engineering practice enables ordinary practitioners create sophisticated systems that work … reliably.” Has the software architecture reached this state?
It’s important to note that engineering discipline practitioners make the bulk of money by solving routine design problems. Routine design aims at “solving familiar problems” and designing solutions by using the knowledge base from previous projects and experiences (e.g. an e-commerce shopping cart site). Innovative design aims at solving original and unique problems, such as controlling an unmanned helicopter through a remote control center. It’s important to note that with software architecture discipline the bulk of the money is made solving routine problems by ordinary practitioners.
So how do engineering disciplines evolve?
The engineering disciplines evolve from ad hoc state in two steps. Initially, talented and passionate amateurs pioneer the discipline. They achieve their goals by all means necessary – usually irrationally using available resources. Later the routine production occurs. With time the need for advancement arises and supporting science for an engineering discipline emerges. The maturing science eventually turns into a “professional engineering practice,” where science will become the main driving force of a discipline.
What will it take for the software architecture discipline to become mature? This question will be addressed in the future post.
Other ideas to think about: if software architecture discipline is not based on hard science at its higher levels of abstraction, will it ever reach the same level of maturity as a civil engineering?
Wednesday, April 23, 2008
The latest issue of the Microsoft’s Architecture Journal is bound to rekindle the topic of maturity and purpose of the software / enterprise / technical / infrastructure / data architecture discipline. The issue is fresh off the press. Microsoft is correctly anticipating the onslaught of responses by setting up a special discussion forum. As of writing of this post the forum is not yet active, but once it becomes active the phrase tra-ta-ta-ta-ta will take on a whole new meaning.
Assessment of software architecture is necessary to judge its utility and applicability to the goals a system aims to achieve. Every architecture design should be assessed by a non-partisan resource, but this practice has been adopted only at organizations with a very mature software engineering processes. There are no industry wide accepted methods for evaluating software architecture, but the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method (ATAM), developed by the SEI, is a well structured & rational approach for conducting architecture assessments.
Benefits of a structured tradeoff analysis method
The principal benefit of the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis is an ability to see if a proposed overall software structure will live up to the user expectations. The tradeoff analysis helps one understand the strengths and weaknesses of a system. The ATAM method not only helps evaluate the current system architecture, but also helps with the design of architecture for a new system. This methodology helps designers to ask the right questions and solve critical issues early on in the project. Additionally, selecting the right degree of quality for a specific system fully utilizes the money spent by the customer, as the money spent in any one particular area of the system will be justified.
The ATAM process helps developers discover tradeoffs and sensitivity points
The tradeoff points are defined as the dependencies between attributes. The sensitivity points are the areas of the system that will be significantly impacted if system architecture is changed. The tradeoff points are the breeding ground for the sensitivity points, because when architecture changes the connections between different attributes changes as well.
One of the more obvious tradeoffs is the relationship between performance and security quality. Often the security quality is achieved by compromising performance; this is not a surprising statement as it’s general knowledge that making something secure requires a special effort. Even outside of the architectural context, securing a door in a house requires a purchase and installation of a lock – and that’s only the initial costs. The effort required to lock and unlock the door each time it’s open/closed is an additional cost/effort element. In this out of context example performance of the door can be increased by not installing a door lock. With no lock there is little security, as anyone can open the door with no trouble. The tradeoff points in this example are the presence of lock(s) and the speed at which a door may be opened (perhaps for security reasons it can only be opened at 1 foot per hour).
Key sensitive points are like the gauges that must be monitored by an architect each time a change to a software system is considered on an architectural level.
Do you evaluate your software architecture?
At the end of the day a systemic architecture evaluation method is up to the architect to decide. What matters is that an architect has a way to judge whether architecture is the right fit for a business problem at hand. Other evaluation methods exist and serve various purposes: SAAM, ALMA, FAAM, CBAM. Some even use this assessment form.
Post a comment if you evaluate software architecture. How do you do it?
Saturday, April 19, 2008
Insightful paper by Rick Kazman & Amnon Eden, presented at ICSE 2003, that defines the boundaries between "Architecture", "Design", and "Implementation" by formalizing the ‘Intension and the Locality criteria, which imply that the distinction between architecture, design, and implementation is qualitative and not merely quantitative.’
Basic understanding of formal notation (esp. Zed) is necessary for enriched reading experience.
Friday, April 18, 2008
In late February of 2008 Microsoft dissolved the Microsoft Architecture MVP award as part of realignment of the MVP program to be more product oriented. Dissolved is a wrong word … so read on. This came as a surprise to many award recipients - including myself – who lost a “nice to have” title. This development, however, had a very positive impact on the Architecture MVP community, because it forced the architects ask themselves some hard questions about their role in the community and the role Microsoft plays in the software architecture discipline.
This post features some highlights from the ferociously bubbling listserv.
At first there was confusion. Participants understood the reasoning behind moving towards a product oriented approach, but they couldn’t fathom the disappearance of the architecture competency. Then there was anger – well summarized by one of the participants: “I believe the shutdown of the MVP Architect program is just one more piece of evidence that … Microsoft does not appreciate the role of the architect in driving large buy decisions.”
Then a word of wisdom came from Simon Guest. In order for the MVP program to grow the structure has to change. MVPs will be aligned to a product, but will be able to select a discipline such as architecture. Simon then called for an open forum at the MVP summit in Redmond on April 15th.
Identity crisis started to emerge – some participants, including Martin Fowler, voiced their reserved opinions about the value of the MVP award. Valid questions arose – why do architects communicate so little with each other? What role do architects play in organizations? What do they do for Microsoft? The consensus was clear – although there is a clear need for robust architecture communities the MVP award infrastructure didn’t make individual architects feel part of a single unit.
Finally discussion merged onto taking proactive steps to define the scope and purpose of the group. Familiar questions arose: how do we define different types of architects? What are the definitions of architecture and architect? Should we just take some definitions from IASA? Microsoft has established a work space where the discussion of these various topics will commence.
There are no clear answers, but there are good questions – Microsoft is moving in the right direction albeit at its own pace.
Friday, January 25, 2008
- A great architect is not made by way of a brain nearly so much as he is made by way of a cultivated, enriched heart.
- All fine architectural values are human vales, else not valuable.
- An architect's most useful tools are an eraser at the drafting board, and a wrecking bar at the site.
- Every great architect is - necessarily - a great poet. He must be a great original interpreter of his time, his day, his age.
- Form follows function - that has been misunderstood. Form and function should be one, joined in a spiritual union.
- Get the habit of analysis - analysis will in time enable synthesis to become your habit of mind.
- Less is only more where more is no good.
- The architect must be a prophet... a prophet in the true sense of the term... if he can't see at least ten years ahead don't call him an architect.
- The architect should strive continually to simplify; the ensemble of the rooms should then be carefully considered that comfort and utility may go hand in hand with beauty.
- The truth is more important than the facts.
- "Think simple" as my old master used to say - meaning reduce the whole of its parts into the simplest terms, getting back to first principles.
Wednesday, January 23, 2008
For the spring 2008 semester I function as a distance education instructor for the Principles of Software Architectures course offered by the School of Computer Science at the Carnegie Mellon University through the Institute for Software Research International. As I reviewed the course I fondly remembered the lectures by Prof. David Garlan and Tony Lattanze while pursuing my Masters in Software Engineering (IT) degree some years ago. At the same time I reflected on the architecture representation practices employed on some of the recent projects I’ve reviewed and sadly the state of affairs is looking pretty grim.
It is still common to see software architecture designs mix incongruent design elements together, such as combining message flow process with a class diagram. As a gentle reminder, architecture of a software system is represented through a number of views that describe some angle of a system. There are many different views that can be chosen by an architect to represent some aspect of the system (e.g. process view, deployment view, decomposition view, etc.). No matter what view an architect chooses to document some aspect of architecture it’s critical to understand that most views can be classified into static, runtime, and physical. It is absolutely critical to maintain conceptual integrity of a given view; otherwise you may be comparing apples to oranges. If this is new to you read a copy of Software Architecture in Practice, Second Edition, take this course from Carnegie Mellon, or take a class from the Software Engineering Institute.
Sunday, January 20, 2008
Opportunistic projects (software solutions) are the essence of the progress in all organizations. These projects provide valuable ad-hoc gains in productivity to the people who need help the most. Such projects usually don’t have a formal budget, have one or a few people running it, and usually reside outside of enterprise architecture environment or go against the formal way of doing things. But these projects exist because they provide the benefit the core IT organization cannot.
One example may be auto generation of pre-canned reports for a loan processing clerk. In this case an existing FICO score provides good information about the risk level of a potential borrower, but a loan procession clerk may get an additional level of insight, and reduce risk to the bank, by looking into additional publically available information. Usually opportunistic solutions target a small specialized niche, such as pre-canned reports for farm machinery loans. But as loan officers across bank divisions talk to each other, they find out that these reports are insightful for other loan types, and eliminate the need to do manual research. Now all loan officers want these reports to be included as part of their loan application paperwork. Loan division chief requests the opportunistic software solution owners to provide reports to everyone. Will this work?
A responsible software architect who recognizes this situation needs to act fast. There are many red flags in this scenario that may turn a well respected idea into a disaster. First, it should be clear that unless the designers of the opportunistic software solution thought about scalability and extensibility during design it may not be possible to produce more reports without rethinking entire approach. Perhaps the solution taps into an already overtaxed database system that goes offline periodically. Secondly, the growth problem may not only be technical in nature. May be the business process supported by the software solution is not scalable. It may be that the software generates reports and emails them to users automatically, but requests for reports are being processed manually. Perhaps the reactive response to support the requested increase in demand would be to add staff and throw hardware at the problem. That may last for some time, if system allows multiple users, but eventually the opportunistic solution will require features that can only be obtained from enterprise services (e.g. SMTP service, enterprise auditing, directory services, etc.).
The moral of the story: build on success of opportunistic solutions. Recognize patterns, analyze change impact, educate solution owners on the natural evolution of successful opportunistic solutions and on the differences between ad-hoc and enterprise solutions, understand how requested change fits into the existing and future organizational enterprise architecture, and finally show the solution owners that the demand for their service will only grow with time.
Saturday, January 19, 2008
It’s the architect’s job to decide and communicate which quality attributes need to be emphasized in order to achieve the overarching mission of a solution. Similarly the iconic American artist Edward Hopper, in his paintings, captured the essence of a scene while abstracting the negligent elements of the situation.
In painting Haskell’s House you clearly see that the artist chose to omit the wires from the electrical poles. The busy harbor behind the house is not depicted in the painting: the core emphasis is on the house. Also notice how the sun rays draw your attention on the house and you can almost forget about the mundane details of trees, landscaping, and electrical poles. A software architect has a similar job: capture the big picture (e.g. security, environment constraints, composition of services), but note the critical solution qualities (e.g. usability, performance).
In the infamous painting, Nighthawks, Edward Hopper uses light and shadows to concentrate viewer’s attention on the situation in a dinner. Notice lack of pedestrians, cars, or any other artifacts that would detract from the developing situation inside of a dinner. The viewer may dully acknowledge the presence of outside, but all the attention is concentrated on what is happening on the inside. Similarly an application architect that works in a mature design environment simply needs to acknowledge the presence of certain assumptions, but concentrate his work on the essence of a solution.
If you ever have a chance to see a collection of Edward Hopper’s paintings do not miss that chance. A closer look at the paintings can be found here.
Saturday, January 12, 2008
What kind of hardware & software environment exists at company Foo and how do they handle similar challenges? How will organization Foo evolve over time? Few organizations publish their enterprise architecture specifications; after all, a refined purposeful architecture is a competitive asset. But some organizations publish such information. If you search for MS Word or PDF documents for keywords such as “Enterprise Architecture principles”, “enterprise standards”, “to-be EA”, you will find a few valuable resources. One example is an IT Standards document for the US state of Kentucky. The freshness of the resources will vary, but discovering and learning from other organizations is a good way to gain new perspective and judge your organization’s software and enterprise architecture approaches.Constantin K.
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